What Is Decomposition In DBMS?

Are you curious to know what is decomposition in DBMS? You have come to the right place as I am going to tell you everything about decomposition in DBMS in a very simple explanation. Without further discussion let’s begin to know what is decomposition in DBMS?

In the realm of Database Management Systems (DBMS), decomposition stands as a fundamental concept crucial in database design, organization, and optimization. It involves breaking down larger database tables into smaller, more manageable and efficient structures, contributing to better data management, normalization, and overall system performance. In this blog post, we’ll explore the essence of decomposition in DBMS, its significance, and its role in refining database structures.

What Is Decomposition In DBMS?

Decomposition in DBMS refers to the process of breaking a single database relation or table into multiple smaller tables based on certain attributes or functional dependencies. This process is essential for achieving normalization and eliminating data redundancy within the database.

Importance And Objectives:

  • Normalization: Decomposition is a core principle of database normalization, aiming to minimize data redundancy and dependency while ensuring data integrity.
  • Reduction of Anomalies: By breaking down tables into smaller, more specific entities, decomposition helps mitigate anomalies such as insertion, update, and deletion anomalies.
  • Improving System Performance: A well-decomposed database structure enhances query performance, simplifies data retrieval, and supports efficient storage and management of data.

Types Of Decomposition:

  • Functional Dependency Decomposition: Involves breaking tables based on functional dependencies to ensure each table contains only attributes functionally dependent on its primary key.
  • Lossless-Join Decomposition: A type of decomposition where the original table can be reconstructed accurately through joins of the decomposed tables without any loss of information.

Process Of Decomposition:

  • Identifying Functional Dependencies: Analyze the dependencies between attributes within a table to identify which attributes are functionally dependent on others.
  • Applying Normalization Rules: Use normalization rules (such as Boyce-Codd Normal Form – BCNF or Third Normal Form – 3NF) to guide the decomposition process, ensuring adherence to normalization principles.
  • Creating Smaller Tables: Based on the identified dependencies, create smaller tables that remove redundancy and dependency, improving data organization and efficiency.

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Challenges In Decomposition:

  • Denormalization Requirements: In certain scenarios, denormalization may be necessary to improve query performance, which can conflict with the goal of normalization achieved through decomposition.
  • Maintaining Consistency: Ensuring data consistency and integrity across multiple decomposed tables can pose challenges, requiring careful management and control mechanisms.


Decomposition in DBMS stands as a pivotal process in database design, facilitating efficient data management, normalization, and system optimization. By breaking down larger tables into smaller, well-structured entities based on functional dependencies, decomposition supports data integrity, reduces redundancy, and enhances query performance. While the process involves careful analysis, adherence to normalization principles, and consideration of system requirements, its implementation significantly contributes to the effectiveness and efficiency of Database Management Systems, ensuring streamlined and optimized data handling.


What Is Decomposition And Its Types?

There are three types of decomposition reactions. Thermolysis: Thermolysis is the term for heat-induced breakdown. Electrolysis: Electrolysis is the process of decomposing through electricity. Photolysis: Photolysis is the term for light-induced decomposition.

What Is Decompose In Sql?

The DECOMPOSE Function in PLSQL is used for accepting a string and returning its Unicode string. The DECOMPOSE Function is generally the opposite of the COMPOSE function.

What Is Lossy And Lossless In DBMS?

In case we do not get the same relation X (that was decomposed) after joining X1 and X2, it is known as a lossy decomposition in DBMS. The natural joining of these sub relations always has some extraneous tuples. In the case of a lossless decomposition, we can see that: X1 ⋈ X2 ⋈ X3 ……. ⋈ Xn ⊃ X.

What Is Non Loss Decomposition?

The decomposition of a given relation X is known as a lossless decomposition when the X decomposes into two relations X1 and X2 in a way that the natural joining of X1 and X2 gives us the original relation X in return.

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What Is Decomposition In Dbms